The Bible and abortionJanuary 23, 2008 — Deacon Duncan
The Associated Press has a report on the annual so-called “March For Life,” protesting the 35th anniversary of the historic Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion.
Thousands of abortion opponents marched from the National Mall to the Supreme Court on Tuesday in their annual remembrance of the court’s Roe v. Wade decision.
A smaller crowd of several dozen abortion-rights supporters held their own rally later, marking the 35th anniversary of the landmark Supreme Court ruling that established the nationwide right to abortion.
I also happened to listen to “Focus on the Family” last night, on my way home from work, and caught the tail end of James Dobson’s interview with a former abortionist, now an evangelical pro-lifer. They were talking about the sanctity of human life, and how evil it is that our society “cheapens” human life by condoning abortion, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. (They completely omitted even the most tangential reference to capital punishment, however.)
In honor of the occasion, I thought it might be interesting to look at what the Bible has to say about abortion.
Here’s what biblegateway.com has to say when you type “abortion” into its search engine for the text of the entire Bible:
Sorry. No results found for “abortion” in Keyword Search.
Oops. Not only does the Bible not state that “Abortion is murder,” as so many pro-lifers like to shout, it doesn’t even mention abortion.
Maybe it states that “life begins at conception” though. Let’s type “life conception” into the Bible search engine.
No results were found for life conception in the version(s):New International Version.
Try refining your search using the form above.
Ok, so the Bible does not say that life begins at conception. What about pregnancy? Maybe the Bible says it’s wrong for a woman to end her own pregnancy?
Exodus 21:22-25 (New International Version)
22 “If men who are fighting hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth prematurely [a] but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the woman’s husband demands and the court allows. 23 But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.
- Exodus 21:22 Or she has a miscarriage
Ok, this one might be close (and it’s a favorite of pro-lifers). But notice, this is a somewhat ambiguous law, and might even be arguing against the pro-life position. If the woman miscarries (and remember, there aren’t any neo-natal intensive care units in the Sinai desert at the time God is supposedly speaking these words), the miscarriage is not a “serious injury,” even though it’s almost certainly fatal to the fetus. Modern translators tend to try and minimize this implication by translating it as “gives birth prematurely,” thus implying that a viable baby is born, but the other translation is linguistically valid enough to warrant a translator’s footnote.
Also, whose serious injuries are we talking about here? The injuries being punished are “life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.” Except for the first and last, none of the injuries are really consistent with the harm a fetus would suffer by being born prematurely or injured in utero by a blow to the pregnant woman. The injury list sounds more like things that would happen to the unfortunate woman.
And in any case, this law applies only in cases where harm results from a violent assault. It says nothing about a woman choosing to end her own pregnancy early, with or without her husband’s consent. Pro-lifers like to argue that it shows the life of the fetus is “sacred,” and that causing its death deserves a punishment equal to the punishment for murder. It’s as close as they can get to making the Bible say what they want about abortion being murder. But again, it’s not clear from the text that the “life” referred to is the baby’s life. It doesn’t say, “If the baby is born prematurely, and then subsequently dies,” as in verses 20 and 21 about beating one’s slaves. It just says, “if there is a serious injury” (implying that causing miscarriage is not a serious injury).
Remember, the whole issue here is not about whether it’s morally right to kill infants, toddlers, and small children. The question is whether the zygote/embryo/fetus belongs in the same category. Pro-lifers assume that it is in the same category, and then use that assumption to claim that Bible references to killing children include an equal condemnation for abortion. But that’s not what the Bible says, and this verse in Exodus seems to indicate that Moses, at least, did not even regard miscarriage as a serious injury.
In fact, let’s look at some of the other things the Bible says about the topic. We’ve already seen that God is pro-choice. Genesis 2:7 also tells us that “the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being”–literally, a living soul. So apparently the body was formed first, but Adam did not become a living soul until the breath of life entered his nostrils, similar to what happens when a newborn takes his/her first breath. But the Bible is not unanimous about life being in the breath; Leviticus 17:11 tells us that “the life of the flesh is in the blood”. So you might also associate the (biblical) life of the fetus with the development of the circulatory system, about 3 weeks after conception. You could argue (superstitiously, it’s true) that the embryo does not become a person until it has blood, which would allow a sizable percentage of all voluntary abortions, including “morning after” situations and rapes.
But really, the bottom line is that the pro-life movement is fundamentally a secular, political movement that is using the Bible for its own, human-inspired ends. The Bible itself does not teach that abortion is murder, nor does it teach that a fertilized egg is a person. Even if you assume that the Bible is God’s inspired and infallible word, it’s not a pro-life document. Pro-lifers have adopted it as a sock-puppet for their own opinions, and built their case on an Old Testament law that, in the immediately preceding commandment, condoned beating one’s slaves badly enough to leave them bedridden for up to two days–even if the slave dies after the two-day waiting period!
If, however, he survives a day or two, no vengeance shall be taken; for he is his property.
In other words, it’s ok to give your slaves a fatal beating, as long as they linger on their deathbed for at least 24-48 hours. So much for the “sanctity of life,” eh?